Get a coach and do squats. Work up to some insane weight that you never thought you could have done. Builds quads and stabilizing muscles like no other. Get a coach, because humans CAN lift so much weight donig squats that they can wreck their bodies if done incorrectly.
I bet some yoga would help. I used to sprain/twist my ankles all the time, like two or three times a year. I added yoga classes to my workout routine a few years ago and have not twisted anything since. I think it strengthens your tendons and all that good stuff in ways a traditional workout does not, but it’s important to have good form so you’re not doing damage. It’s little stuff like pushing out through your heels in a plank, etc. that help.
Unfortunately, tight shoes are not conducive to physical health in your lower extremities. But, most salsa shoes are on the tight side so try and get something with more give or a wider toe box.
As for exercises, honestly, hip mobility training is HUGE for all your ailments.